Literature: Evolvement, Manifestation, Proliferation, Concept and Contribution

first_imgThe world of literature is an inevitable product of human emotion and intelligence. Literature evolved out of necessity to the wits.  Communication was the sole criteria to express one’s view, a view which was a little different and higher and wiser than that of common requirements. Moreover, the assimilation of different cultures, thoughts gradually enriched the world of literature.  Globalization made the world of art and culture strong and full of vitality.The modern concept, ‘Globalization’, assumed in the last fifty years or so as far as business and for that communication was concerned.  The technology eased the relation off the world by bringing it within the same platform.  The TV, the internet, the Fax machine, the computer all played pivotal roles to augment the periphery of globalization.  The wits and intelligence, the human resources of different corners of the globe have been contributed to forming the world of literature. There was a mutation of the free-minded people, caused by different unrests in the society emphasized by fellow feeling, ignited by modern education, stuffed with a new concept, new awareness, and above all new wind of change.  The results were varied. Some ethnic group lost their entity, some, who stronger, economically powerful, e3ducaltionally advanced grew.  Not only that, the modern breeze of change broke the nations into pieces.  The Glasnost and Perestroika swept over the USSR and multi-furcated the nation.However, globalization started many centuries back before the Christian era before the 15th century.  Discovery of America, in the 15th century, the Silk Route connecting the ancient world to Europe and North Africa, these routes also connected China for pottery, India for spices and textiles. Through these routes, Buddhist preachers, Christian missionaries, Muslim preachers travelled to and fro and paved the path of globalization. In this case, the Portuguese- were the stalwarts. Henry, the Navigator (1394-1460) discovered many new places like the western coast of Africa, Western African Guinea Coast.  Bartholomew Diaz, Vasco-de-Gama all gradually made the world their home.  On the other hand, Spanish explorers also contributed to the development of communication.  Columbus made his voyage on August 3, 1492, with 88 men on board, Amerigo Vespucci, Ferdinand Magellan in 1519.  The mere adventures of these navigators made the path of social, political land economic, and cultural activities.  The other side of these changes was scornful as the travellers exchanged diseases too like smallpox.  Some scho9lars believed that the European conquest of America was not only the result of their superior fire ammunition but also the disease that they carried with them.Technology played havoc on human civilization as it occupied the place of human labour. It improved the productivities; transport simultaneously undermined the need for human values. This created two separate classes measured by wealth—haves and have-nots or proletariat.  Manual labours were cheap. In London, people streamed in search of work and food leaving their villages and led a wretched life with filth and disease.Slavery, marked by the Portuguese in the late 15th century, the war of the North and South America over the abolishment of slavery produced many literary creations written by people who were directly associated or suffered by the incident like Up from Slavery by Booker. T. Washington, To Sir with Love by E.R.Braithwaite on apartheid.  The rapidly changing world also gave birth to many famous novels across the earth like Things Fall Apart (1958) by Chinua Achebe.  Every incident, that startled the human civilization or history, found its niches in literature or writing. The revolutionary period of the United States marked by the political writings of Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Paine.  United States Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson made him a key writer of American literature.  The Rinderpest, a fatal animal disease, that swept the cattle in Africa in late 1880, and lasted up to 1892, caused 90% of cattle death in Africa.  Spinage and Clive wrote the book on this topic Cattle Plague—A History (The result of the import of the infected cattle from British Asia to feed the Indian soldiers who had come to Africa to invade Eretria.  The disease had a widespread appearance up to the southernmost tip of Africa Cape of Agulhas.The Industrial Revolution is one of the greatest events in human civilization.  The beginning of this revolution dates back from 1760 to 1820 and 1840.  Through the term “Industrial Revolution” seems to have been appeared in a letter written on 1799, 6 July by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto.  However, the idea of new social order is reflected in the writings of Sjoiuthey (Joan of Arc), Owen, Wordsworth, Arnold Toynbee.  Renaissance is the 14th century, in which there was a complete change in perception about the society, politics, arts though hatched in Italy, but swept all over Europe. The Greco-Roman inspiration was visible both in theme and literary forms and viewed through an anthropocentric perspective. Platonic ideas were revived and put to the services of Christianity.  Montaigne, Spenserian metrical stanza came into bei9ng in the literature. The Italian soil produced many great writers, scholars, and philosophers who helped to propel human civilization in the right direction among stew. The Prince, by Machiavelli, is one such example of writing that was more of literature than a document. The invention of the printing press by the German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg in the 15the century somehow expedited the spread of literature and its influence.What I felt and perceived through the journey of different literature of different times is that literature may be sensed or evolved by two ways literature of passion and literature of necessity. Literature, what I mean, not to confine in a small or stereotype category.  Greek literature in 800 BC circa, of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, the writings of Sappho and Pindar (Poetry), Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides between 800-500 BC may be referred to as the literature of passion.  Latin the lingua franca of Western Europe throughout the middle ages (5th to 15th century) produced many great world-class and immortal literary creations by the hands of Cicero, Vergil, Ovid, and Horace.  Latin literature was the continuation of ancient Greek literature and in the modern era; writers like Francis Bacon, Spinoza land Isaac Newton they were all contributed to society and not in the same ways, one touched the soul and the other wit.Literature is a creation of human’s cognitive disposition reflecting social changes, personal likes and dislikes, political involvements, socio-economic relation, bondage, slavery, and many more. Upheaval helped men to stoop pearls among the debris.  The demographic changes and the labour, the enormous growth of technology worked like the two sides of a river, one in the constant process of breaking the bank, and the other growing. And there is a change in the course and at times when blocked by prolonged sluggishness, unethical activities and indolence human civilization finds its new vista either automatically or by force of the mass called Revolution. The Industrial Revolution chaperoned in parallel with the impact of scientific thought, signalized by Newton in the Principia and quite dramatically in Optics, which influenced Locke, Pope, and others. The Enlightenment,l the spi9rit of which infuses 18th century England and France, literature in large part arises from the beginning of modern scientific thought as well as political philosophers Locke. The reaction of the Industrial Revolution played behind the Literature as Blake spoke “dark satanic mills.”  Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein is deeply an anti-scientific book.  The gothic novels retreated from the present to a romanticized past.The great theme of the English novels is man functioning in society. The Industrial Revolution changed the sources of wealth.  The Victorian period started with billowing smoke of change as Dickens observed.  Nonetheless, the social impact of an industrialized society from a cluster of themes in many of Trollope’s novels (The Warden-1855, Barchester Tower-1857, etc) and the Palliser Series (six novels of Anthony Trollope: Can You Forgive Her-1873, Phineas Redux-1874, The Prime Minister-1876, The Ducke’s Children-1877).  The infrastructural changes also brought some dissent in some countries. The Haussmannization is such an event that took place in Paris between 1852 to 1869, a phase of change that resulted in full-grown trees uprooted.  This task was conducted under in instance of Napoleon III ( nephew of Napoleon Bo0naparte).  About 350000 people were evicted in order to make new boulevards and streets but the main cause of the eviction was the protest. The literature on Haussmannization: Even remnant of the incident in society pr0oduced literature even after two hundred years that criticized the time for its rapid cosmetic change.  A small period of 1852 to 1869 also had shed stark influence on literature like the book, written by David Harvey “Paris Capitale D La Modernite (2008).  This is just an example of the influence of history over literature and the power of literature that strengthens the bond of past and present and illuminate the dark areas hitherto unknown.Literature cannot pave the path unless it gets its reader.  The printing press led to the rise of the new public with reading habits. Penny’s cheap books were available in the market.  This triggers the habit of questioning out of a feeling of reason and rationality which became the potent force of various movements, particularly in the religious and political fields.  In France and England, the literacy rate increased sixty to seventy per cent.  In France, the cheap books named “Bibliotheque Bleue” were available in the market.  ‘The Ninety-Five These in Latin’ by Martin Luthar is also an example of the literature of that period that was outspoken against the act of the Church. Another contemporary of the time Erasmus also took the weapons of writing.  His ‘ Pocket Dagger’, ‘Praise of Folly, ‘New Testament’ are the famous writings that too came out of necessity.last_img read more